The knee joint is a hinge joint that constitute of two articulations formed between the patella, thigh bone (femur), and large shin bone (tibia). The patella or kneecap protects the front of the knee joint.
There are various ligaments that surrounds the knee joint and provide stability and strength to the knee joint. The knee joint is encircled by a joint capsule with collateral ligaments lining the inside and outside of the joint. The collateral ligaments limit the sideways motion of the knee. Whereas the crossings within the joint are lined with cruciate ligaments. The Anterior Cruciate ligament (ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint by connecting the thighbone to shinbone. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) which works as a counterpart to the ACL limits the backward motion of the tibia.
The meniscus is a C-shaped thickened cartilage pad, between the shinbone and the thigh bone. Each of your knees has two menisci, one on the inside, medial aspect, and the other one outside (Lateral aspect) of your knee joint. Bursae- the fluid-filled sacs serve as gliding surfaces between the knee joint and reduce the friction of the tendons. Patellar tendon- a large tendon attached to the front of the tibial bone and large blood vessels referred to as popliteal space passing through the area behind the knee promote blood circulation throughout the knee joint.
Muscles surrounding the knee joint:
Quadriceps muscles: Present in front of the thigh and extend throughout the knee joint. It constitutes the main bulk of the thigh and are most powerful muscles in the body.
Hamstring muscles: These muscles run down the back of the thigh and helps bend your knee and extend your hip.
Functions of the knee
The knee joint is one of the strongest joint in the human body allowing movement of the leg while supporting the body’s weight. The knee flexes normally to a maximum of 135 degrees and extends to 0 degrees. Knee joint helps in carrying out essential movements like walking, standing, running, and sitting.
- Causes of Knee pain
- Underlying disease
- Sports injury
- Degenerative disorders like arthritis
- Tumors (rarely)
- Ligament tear
What is Osteoarthritis?
- Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the joint that results from wear and tear of the cartilage, reduction of synovial fluid in the joint, ligaments damage or due to micro-fractures.
- OA can be a result of ageing, obesity, heredity, overuse of a joint and injury from trauma or disease.
The most common symptoms of OA
- Cracking Sound
- Inability to move joint or bend the knee
- Loss of physical function
- Reduced quality of life
Stages of OA & Treatment
Knee Pain due to osteoarthritis can be easily identified through diagnostics and common symptoms. The treatment goal of OA involves the reduction of pain and inflammation and improving joint function. There are 5 stages of osteoarthritis:
Stage 0: This stage does not show any symptoms and no treatment is required.
Stage I, II: These 2 stages are usually the Early onset of arthritis and show mild to moderate symptoms. The treatment involve:
- Supplements like glucosamine and chondroitin
- Fluid Injection into the inflamed joint
- Nonpharmacologic therapies to help relieve the pain
Stage III: Advanced Stage
When a patient shows obvious signs of cartilage erosion and does not respond to medications and observe frequent pain when running, walking, extending, squatting, or kneeling. In such cases, physiotherapy is the preferred choice of treatment along with strong medications to help relieve pain.
Stage IV: Severe stage
The severe cases of osteoarthritis are usually treated with osteotomy or bone realignment surgery, in which the orthopedic surgeon removes the damaged joint parts and replaces them with artificial metal components.
What is Total Knee Replacement?
A total knee joint replacement surgery is a surgical procedure in which painful or poorly functioning knee joint is replaced with artificial metal implants.
During the procedure:
- The orthopedic surgeon makes an incision on the front edge of your knee.
- After separating the muscles and the ligaments around the knee, your knee surgeon will gain access inside the knee capsule with the aid of specialized tools.
- After which, the damaged parts of the knee are removed and is replaced with new prosthetic components.
- Before your incision is closed an X-Ray will be taken to ensure that the new component of your knee is positioned correctly.
- Your orthopedic surgeon will close the incision with stitches and staples and temporarily leave a drain in place to remove the excess fluid.
Cost of Total Knee Replacement Surgery
At Cure My Knee one can undergo knee replacement surgery at very lower rates. The below table showcases the approximate knee replacement cost.
|Type of Surgery||Approx. cost|
|Unilateral Total Knee Replacement||1.29 lakhs + Implant cost|
|Bilateral Total Knee Replacement||2.29 lakhs + Implant cost|